Psychology (from the Greek, literally "to study the soul") is an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental behavior.
Psychologists attempt to explain the mind and brain in the context of real life, in contrast to the physiological approach used by neurologists. Psychologists study such phenomena as perception, cognition, emotion, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships.
Psychology also refers to the application of such knowledge to various spheres of human activity, including issues related to daily life ––family, education and work, for instance–– and the treatment of mental health problems.
In addition to dissecting the brain's implementation of elementary mental functions, psychology also attempts to understand the role these functions play in social behavior and in social dynamics, while incorporating the underlying physiological and neurological processes into its conceptions of mental functioning. Psychology includes many sub-fields of study and application concerned with such areas as human development, sports, health, industry, media and law.
Clinical psychology includes the scientific study and application of psychology for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development. Central to its practice are psychological assessment and psychotherapy, although clinical psychologists also engage in research, teaching, consultation and forensic testimony.
Clinical psychologists are experts in providing psychotherapy, and generally train within four primary theoretical orientations: Psychodynamic, Humanistic, Cognitive Behavioral, and Systemic therapy. Those that chose the psychoanalytical orientation must first undertake five years of university studies in clinical psychology and then undertake long ––about ten years–– and exacting training in psychoanalysis.